Promoting excellence in public participation in Southern Africa

IAP2 Spectrum

IAP2 Public Participation Spectrum

IAP2 Spectrum of Public Participation

© IAP2. Click to view larger table


The Spectrum is designed to assist with the selection of the level of participation that defines the public’s role in any community engagement program.

Differing levels of participation are legitimate depending on the goals, time frames, resources and levels of concern in the decision to be made.

However, and most importantly, the Spectrum sets out the promise being made to the public at each participation level. The Spectrum is widely used and is quoted in most community engagement manuals.


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